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Coniferous evergreen dioecious shrub of the family Cupressaceae, with a height of up to 3 m, with gray-brown scaly Bark. The leaves (needles) sessile, linear-subulate, rigid, triangular, arranged in whorls of three needles each. Male flowers yellowish, sessile, clustered in catkins, female — green bumps. After fertilization, the three upper scales of pinecones swell and grow, forming berries (false berries); initially green, then black, with a bluish tinge.
Common juniper grows on forest edges, glades, among shrubs in forest and steppe zones.
Fruits contain Essential oil, consisting of cadinene, camphene, pinene, crystallizing juniper camphor and other substances, a large amount of sugar, Resin, yellow pigment juniperi, tannin, pectin, wax, ascorbic, acetic, malic, formic acid, Mineral salts, trace elements. In the needles a lot of Ascorbic acid, Essential oil, Volatile in the cortex — Tannins.
Preparations of the fruit of Juniperus mainly used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and disinfe-tiraumea funds in edema of cardiac origin, edema, inflammation of the bladder. They also have expectorant and mild choleretic effect, stimulate the appetite and enhance intestinal peristalsis. But Juniper irritate the renal parenchyma and it should not be used for a long time and in large doses.
When kidney disease Juniper is contraindicated.
Essential oil of the fruits in combination with surgical treatment and radiation therapy gives good results in the treatment of skin cancer. Juniper berries are included in the diuretic fees. Essential oil extracted from pine needles, used for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginitis. Alcohol infusion and an ointment of the cones used for rubbing in rheumatism and gout, as a painkiller and distraction.
In folk medicine, water infusion and decoction of the fruit is used in dropsy, catarrh of bladder, cough, respiratory diseases, scrofula, nervous and women's diseases, poor digestion.
Rubbing alcohol tincture of fruits and compresses of a decoction of young stems and fruits are recommended for gout, neuralgia, paralysis of the limbs, sometimes combining with medicinal baths with a decoction.
The fruits of Juniperus edible. Along with the Juniperus forest and subalpine zones found Juniper Siberian. (Juniperus sibirica Burgs d), characterized by smaller size (up to 1 m).
short, appressed to branches, needles and large cones. In scientific medicine Mozhzhevelnikovye not applied in folk is used in the same way as ordinary.